理解 SQL Join

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以前学习 SQL 的时候对几种 SQL Join 操作总是不经意间就混淆了,今天偶然发现一篇文章,总结的非常好。

7 种 SQL Join

Inner JOIN

SELECT <select_list> 
FROM Table_A A
INNER JOIN Table_B B
ON A.Key = B.Key

返回表 A 和表 B 中都存在的记录。

Inner JOIN

Left JOIN

SELECT <select_list>
FROM Table_A A
LEFT JOIN Table_B B
ON A.Key = B.Key

返回表 A 中所有的记录以及表 A 和表 B 中都存在的记录。

Left JOIN

Right JOIN

SELECT <select_list>
FROM Table_A A
RIGHT JOIN Table_B B
ON A.Key = B.Key

返回表 B 中所有的记录以及表 A 和表 B 中都存在的记录。

Right JOIN

Outer JOIN

SELECT <select_list>
FROM Table_A A
FULL OUTER JOIN Table_B B
ON A.Key = B.Key

返回表 A 和表 B 中所有的记录。

Outer JOIN

Left Excluding JOIN

SELECT <select_list> 
FROM Table_A A
LEFT JOIN Table_B B
ON A.Key = B.Key
WHERE B.Key IS NULL

返回表 A 中存在但是表 B 中不存在的记录。

Left Excluding JOIN

Right Excluding JOIN

SELECT <select_list>
FROM Table_A A
RIGHT JOIN Table_B B
ON A.Key = B.Key
WHERE A.Key IS NULL

返回表 B 中存在但是表 A 中不存在的记录。

Right Excluding JOIN

Outer Excluding JOIN

SELECT <select_list>
FROM Table_A A
FULL OUTER JOIN Table_B B
ON A.Key = B.Key
WHERE A.Key IS NULL OR B.Key IS NULL

返回表 A 和表 B 中非共同存在的所有记录。

Outer Excluding JOIN

示例

假设有两个表表A 和表 B,数据结构如下:

TABLE_A
  PK Value
---- ----------
   1 FOX
   2 COP
   3 TAXI
   6 WASHINGTON
   7 DELL
   5 ARIZONA
   4 LINCOLN
  10 LUCENT

TABLE_B
  PK Value
---- ----------
   1 TROT
   2 CAR
   3 CAB
   6 MONUMENT
   7 PC
   8 MICROSOFT
   9 APPLE
  11 SCOTCH

执行 7 种 Join 操作的结果如下:

-- INNER JOIN
SELECT A.PK AS A_PK, A.Value AS A_Value,
       B.Value AS B_Value, B.PK AS B_PK
FROM Table_A A
INNER JOIN Table_B B
ON A.PK = B.PK

A_PK A_Value    B_Value    B_PK
---- ---------- ---------- ----
   1 FOX        TROT          1
   2 COP        CAR           2
   3 TAXI       CAB           3
   6 WASHINGTON MONUMENT      6
   7 DELL       PC            7

(5 row(s) affected)
-- LEFT JOIN
SELECT A.PK AS A_PK, A.Value AS A_Value,
B.Value AS B_Value, B.PK AS B_PK
FROM Table_A A
LEFT JOIN Table_B B
ON A.PK = B.PK

A_PK A_Value    B_Value    B_PK
---- ---------- ---------- ----
   1 FOX        TROT          1
   2 COP        CAR           2
   3 TAXI       CAB           3
   4 LINCOLN    NULL       NULL
   5 ARIZONA    NULL       NULL
   6 WASHINGTON MONUMENT      6
   7 DELL       PC            7
  10 LUCENT     NULL       NULL

(8 row(s) affected)
-- RIGHT JOIN
SELECT A.PK AS A_PK, A.Value AS A_Value,
B.Value AS B_Value, B.PK AS B_PK
FROM Table_A A
RIGHT JOIN Table_B B
ON A.PK = B.PK

A_PK A_Value    B_Value    B_PK
---- ---------- ---------- ----
   1 FOX        TROT          1
   2 COP        CAR           2
   3 TAXI       CAB           3
   6 WASHINGTON MONUMENT      6
   7 DELL       PC            7
NULL NULL       MICROSOFT     8
NULL NULL       APPLE         9
NULL NULL       SCOTCH       11

(8 row(s) affected)
-- OUTER JOIN
SELECT A.PK AS A_PK, A.Value AS A_Value,
B.Value AS B_Value, B.PK AS B_PK
FROM Table_A A
FULL OUTER JOIN Table_B B
ON A.PK = B.PK

A_PK A_Value    B_Value    B_PK
---- ---------- ---------- ----
   1 FOX        TROT          1
   2 COP        CAR           2
   3 TAXI       CAB           3
   6 WASHINGTON MONUMENT      6
   7 DELL       PC            7
NULL NULL       MICROSOFT     8
NULL NULL       APPLE         9
NULL NULL       SCOTCH       11
   5 ARIZONA    NULL       NULL
   4 LINCOLN    NULL       NULL
  10 LUCENT     NULL       NULL

(11 row(s) affected)
-- LEFT EXCLUDING JOIN
SELECT A.PK AS A_PK, A.Value AS A_Value,
B.Value AS B_Value, B.PK AS B_PK
FROM Table_A A
LEFT JOIN Table_B B
ON A.PK = B.PK
WHERE B.PK IS NULL

A_PK A_Value    B_Value    B_PK
---- ---------- ---------- ----
   4 LINCOLN    NULL       NULL
   5 ARIZONA    NULL       NULL
  10 LUCENT     NULL       NULL
(3 row(s) affected)
-- RIGHT EXCLUDING JOIN
SELECT A.PK AS A_PK, A.Value AS A_Value,
B.Value AS B_Value, B.PK AS B_PK
FROM Table_A A
RIGHT JOIN Table_B B
ON A.PK = B.PK
WHERE A.PK IS NULL

A_PK A_Value    B_Value    B_PK
---- ---------- ---------- ----
NULL NULL       MICROSOFT     8
NULL NULL       APPLE         9
NULL NULL       SCOTCH       11

(3 row(s) affected)
- OUTER EXCLUDING JOIN
SELECT A.PK AS A_PK, A.Value AS A_Value,
B.Value AS B_Value, B.PK AS B_PK
FROM Table_A A
FULL OUTER JOIN Table_B B
ON A.PK = B.PK
WHERE A.PK IS NULL
OR B.PK IS NULL

A_PK A_Value    B_Value    B_PK
---- ---------- ---------- ----
NULL NULL       MICROSOFT     8
NULL NULL       APPLE         9
NULL NULL       SCOTCH       11
   5 ARIZONA    NULL       NULL
   4 LINCOLN    NULL       NULL
  10 LUCENT     NULL       NULL

(6 row(s) affected)

Cheat Sheet

Cheat Sheet

来源:Visual Representation of SQL Joins

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